Tuesday, September 8, 2020

Ultrasonic soldering bonds glass, titanium, stainless steel, ceramics, tungsten, nichrome...

Technical details and how to build an ultrasonic soldering iron. This technique can bond difficult-to-solder metals such as titanium as well as glass and ceramics.



Cerasolzer technical info: http://cerasolzer.com/cerasolzer/basic_info_gb.html

S-bond technical info: https://www.s-bond.com/solutions-and-service/ultrasonic-soldering/ultrasonic-solder-materials/

Overview of active soldering process: https://sci-hub.tw/10.5772/intechopen.82382

Another good overview: https://www.intechopen.com/books/recent-progress-in-soldering-materials/recent-advances-in-solderability-of-ceramic-and-metallic-materials-with-application-of-active-solder

Discussion of Sn - La solders: https://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2015/269167/

Sn - Ti phase diagram: https://sci-hub.tw/https://doi.org/10.1007/s11669-010-9663-2

This patent has the key list of ingredients (not just broad ranges) listed at paragraph 45: https://patents.google.com/patent/US20160204303A1/en

https://www.patreon.com/AppliedScience

Sunday, August 30, 2020

Demo and teardown of an X-ray fluorescence gun (measures chemical composition)

I show how an X-ray fluorescence gun works, do a teardown and failure analysis, and discuss a new kind of XRF tech now "available" on eBay.


The XRF data can be transferred from the gun to a PC, and analyzed with http://pymca.sourceforge.net/ I did this for several materials, but ran out of time in this video to show the software usage, which is quite involved. Good overall description of XRF: https://phys.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/University_Physics/Book%3A_University_Physics_(OpenStax)/Map%3A_University_Physics_III_-_Optics_and_Modern_Physics_(OpenStax)/08%3A_Atomic_Structure/8.06%3A_Atomic_Spectra_and_X-rays Electron shell shielding described via roller derby ?! https://courses.lumenlearning.com/cheminter/chapter/electron-shielding/ XRF supplies: https://www.amptek.com/ MightyOhm geiger counter: https://mightyohm.com/blog/products/geiger-counter/ The two XRF guns in this video were generously donated by one of my viewers. Thank you! The Tribogenics tape-peel XRF gun on eBay: https://www.ebay.com/itm/New-Watson-XRF-Handheld-Metal-Alloy-Analyzer/123646159115 Applied Science on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/AppliedScience

Sunday, July 19, 2020

Holograms on chocolate





DIY process to copy commercial holograms onto chocolate! Completely edible -- no dyes or inks used. Tech Ingredients' video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SoTi0tM4yQ8 Samy Kamkar's diffractive chocolate: https://twitter.com/samykamkar/status/1259173832620830722 Hologram stickers: https://www.ebay.com/itm/100-Huge-1-9-16-Round-Adhesive-Hologram-Sticker-Labels/331178956157 Silver mirror process: https://sci-hub.tw/https://doi.org/10.1080/00202967.1941.11869396 Add a pinch of sodium lauryl sulfate to the stannous chloride primer solution to help the solution get into contact with the plastic surface. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y-4qqcCxD6g Morphotonix: https://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2014/06/14/321816570/holographic-chocolates-look-as-beautiful-as-they-taste http://www.morphotonix.com/products/ Caswell nickel electroplating kit: https://www.caswellplating.com/electroplating-anodizing/nickel-plating-kits/nickel-electroplating-kit-1-5-gal.html (Price was already pretty high years ago, and has gone up a lot since; and the kit has fewer components than it used to. But it does work well.) Holography Marketplace book -- lots of very practical information for making your own holograms, and good source of suppliers (though many are out-of-business now): https://www.amazon.com/Holography-MarketPlace-6th-Franz-Ross/dp/0894960997 Very good source for mold making supplies: https://shop.smooth-on.com/ Countermeasures against hologram copying. Holograms are often used as a security seal, so making copies as shown in the video could be a problem without countermeasures: http://www.nli-ltd.com/publications/countermeasures.php I was planning to talk more about different types of holograms in technical detail, but I think I will save it for a future, dedicated video on making original holograms. https://www.patreon.com/AppliedScience

Giant glass diffusion pump and cathode ray tube demo





This vacuum diffusion pump is made entirely of glass so we can see how it works. I also show a CRT built from a glass lab flask. The pump was bought on Amazon! https://www.amazon.com/Vacuum-Diffusion-L-2210-Three-stage-Four-stage/dp/B07MJ2RQ44/ Diffusion pump instructions translation: https://twitter.com/BenKrasnow/status/1170188966642896896 I used DC-704 silicone diffusion pump oil: https://www.duniway.com/catalog/diffusion-pumps/diffusion-pump-oil The tabletop burner and fuel are commonly found at Asian supermarkets. Phosphor paint: https://www.coastairbrush.com/products.asp?cat=386 Water chiller: https://www.ebay.com/itm/S-A-CW-5200-Industry-Water-Chiller-110V-60Hz-for-Laser-Cutting-2-Years-Warranty/122389384736 Support Applied Science on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/AppliedScience

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Hypercentric optics: A camera lens that can see behind objects




Telecentric and hypercentric optics are very different from our eyes or normal camera lenses. They have "negative" perspective or no perspective, respectively, leading to very unusual images. In this video I show how to use a common fresnel lens in the creation of your own telecentric optical system. 
Fresnel lens, 300mm dia. 200mm FL is sold out... https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B071ZQL9YZ/ 



Idea to use macro tubes for telecentric conversion of normal lenses came from here: http://www.4photos.de/camera-diy/Telecentric-Lens.html 


Commercial hypercentric and telecentric lens maker: https://lw4u.com/ 

Paper on making telecentric lenses with fresnel front elements: https://sci-hub.tw/10.1117/12.455256