Sunday, September 20, 2020

Shooting an electron beam through air

 A special 100nm thick window allows 25 KeV electrons to pass from a vacuum tube to the atmosphere where they hit a fluorescent screen -- a CRT in air!





Shielded GoPro goes through a powerful electron beam: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yPMpAR9w-L0 More powerful amateur electron beam in air: https://fusor.net/board/viewtopic.php?t=7828 Deep technical resource on dielectric charging via electron bombardment: https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a172204.pdf Tons of information on industrial e-beam processing: http://iiaglobal.com/uploads/documents/Industrial_Radiation_eBeam_Xray.pdf KF25 to glass tube quick adapter: https://www.idealvac.com/SWIFT-SEAL-KF-to-Compression-Port-Adapter/pp/P103772 100nm silicon nitride windows: https://www.tedpella.com/grids_html/silicon-nitride-x-ray-windows.htm More windows: http://www.temwindows.com/category_s/22.htm Tritium light sources (eBay removed most): https://usa.banggood.com/search/tritium.html E-beam crosslinking: https://ebeamservices.com/polymer-crosslinking/services/plastic-parts/ KF25 cross $18 on Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B07CKS3H99 Lightbulb sockets: https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B07SSYN83Y/ Hysol 1C: https://www.amazon.com/Loctite-HL1373425-1373425-Hysol-1C/dp/B000B631G8 Applied Science on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/AppliedScience

Tuesday, September 8, 2020

Sunday, August 30, 2020

Demo and teardown of an X-ray fluorescence gun (measures chemical composition)

I show how an X-ray fluorescence gun works, do a teardown and failure analysis, and discuss a new kind of XRF tech now "available" on eBay.


The XRF data can be transferred from the gun to a PC, and analyzed with http://pymca.sourceforge.net/ I did this for several materials, but ran out of time in this video to show the software usage, which is quite involved. Good overall description of XRF: https://phys.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/University_Physics/Book%3A_University_Physics_(OpenStax)/Map%3A_University_Physics_III_-_Optics_and_Modern_Physics_(OpenStax)/08%3A_Atomic_Structure/8.06%3A_Atomic_Spectra_and_X-rays Electron shell shielding described via roller derby ?! https://courses.lumenlearning.com/cheminter/chapter/electron-shielding/ XRF supplies: https://www.amptek.com/ MightyOhm geiger counter: https://mightyohm.com/blog/products/geiger-counter/ The two XRF guns in this video were generously donated by one of my viewers. Thank you! The Tribogenics tape-peel XRF gun on eBay: https://www.ebay.com/itm/New-Watson-XRF-Handheld-Metal-Alloy-Analyzer/123646159115 Applied Science on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/AppliedScience

Sunday, July 19, 2020

Holograms on chocolate





DIY process to copy commercial holograms onto chocolate! Completely edible -- no dyes or inks used. Tech Ingredients' video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SoTi0tM4yQ8 Samy Kamkar's diffractive chocolate: https://twitter.com/samykamkar/status/1259173832620830722 Hologram stickers: https://www.ebay.com/itm/100-Huge-1-9-16-Round-Adhesive-Hologram-Sticker-Labels/331178956157 Silver mirror process: https://sci-hub.tw/https://doi.org/10.1080/00202967.1941.11869396 Add a pinch of sodium lauryl sulfate to the stannous chloride primer solution to help the solution get into contact with the plastic surface. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y-4qqcCxD6g Morphotonix: https://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2014/06/14/321816570/holographic-chocolates-look-as-beautiful-as-they-taste http://www.morphotonix.com/products/ Caswell nickel electroplating kit: https://www.caswellplating.com/electroplating-anodizing/nickel-plating-kits/nickel-electroplating-kit-1-5-gal.html (Price was already pretty high years ago, and has gone up a lot since; and the kit has fewer components than it used to. But it does work well.) Holography Marketplace book -- lots of very practical information for making your own holograms, and good source of suppliers (though many are out-of-business now): https://www.amazon.com/Holography-MarketPlace-6th-Franz-Ross/dp/0894960997 Very good source for mold making supplies: https://shop.smooth-on.com/ Countermeasures against hologram copying. Holograms are often used as a security seal, so making copies as shown in the video could be a problem without countermeasures: http://www.nli-ltd.com/publications/countermeasures.php I was planning to talk more about different types of holograms in technical detail, but I think I will save it for a future, dedicated video on making original holograms. https://www.patreon.com/AppliedScience

Giant glass diffusion pump and cathode ray tube demo





This vacuum diffusion pump is made entirely of glass so we can see how it works. I also show a CRT built from a glass lab flask. The pump was bought on Amazon! https://www.amazon.com/Vacuum-Diffusion-L-2210-Three-stage-Four-stage/dp/B07MJ2RQ44/ Diffusion pump instructions translation: https://twitter.com/BenKrasnow/status/1170188966642896896 I used DC-704 silicone diffusion pump oil: https://www.duniway.com/catalog/diffusion-pumps/diffusion-pump-oil The tabletop burner and fuel are commonly found at Asian supermarkets. Phosphor paint: https://www.coastairbrush.com/products.asp?cat=386 Water chiller: https://www.ebay.com/itm/S-A-CW-5200-Industry-Water-Chiller-110V-60Hz-for-Laser-Cutting-2-Years-Warranty/122389384736 Support Applied Science on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/AppliedScience

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Hypercentric optics: A camera lens that can see behind objects




Telecentric and hypercentric optics are very different from our eyes or normal camera lenses. They have "negative" perspective or no perspective, respectively, leading to very unusual images. In this video I show how to use a common fresnel lens in the creation of your own telecentric optical system. 
Fresnel lens, 300mm dia. 200mm FL is sold out... https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B071ZQL9YZ/ 



Idea to use macro tubes for telecentric conversion of normal lenses came from here: http://www.4photos.de/camera-diy/Telecentric-Lens.html 


Commercial hypercentric and telecentric lens maker: https://lw4u.com/ 

Paper on making telecentric lenses with fresnel front elements: https://sci-hub.tw/10.1117/12.455256 

Sunday, April 5, 2020

Alpha radiation makes sparks, detects smoke, and eliminates static cling



Interesting applications of a strong polonium-210 alpha radiation source.  The half life is only 140 days, so the Staticmaster brushes must be replaced every year or so.

Great technical article on ionization smoke detectors: https://circuitcellar.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/CC2011110601.pdf

Staticmaster refill: https://www.amazon.com/Static-Master-4331991414-Static-Master-Refill/dp/B0000ALKDH/

Ionization chamber: https://www.aliexpress.com/item/32838644316.html

Carl Willis' video on spark gap detectors. (check out his whole channel) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-8GlzUjYazs

Polonium poisoning: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poisoning_of_Alexander_Litvinenko
https://sci-hub.tw/10.1088/1361-6498/aa58a7

Mightyohm geiger counter: https://mightyohm.com/blog/products/geiger-counter/

Applied Science on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/AppliedScience

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Electron microscope animation: Carbon nanotubes pulled into thread




First-ever animation of carbon nanotubes self-aligning into a thread, captured by an electron microscope (as far as I know). Electron microscope animation of phonograph needle: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GuCdsyCWmt8 Toothbrush: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cwN983PnJoA Active integrated circuit in homebuilt electron microscope: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eoRVEw5gL8c Electron microscope image capture system: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ruuxn2u3yao https://www.patreon.com/AppliedScience